Why Africa needs to rethink workplace training
Effective managers and entrepreneurs hold the key to Africa’s prosperity; the demand for training is greatest for new employees, managers and business owners on the continent.
These are some of the findings of a new report recently released by the African Management Initiative (AMI), an organisation that provides workplace training for businesses across the continent. Titled Training Talent: Best practices in workplace and management development in Africa, the report draws on experience on the continent and global insights to identify solutions to the talent challenge in Africa. It is particularly focused on management and entrepreneurship.
It follows a 2012 review of the state of management education in Africa, and proposes interventions that are needed for the development of talent, and especially management talent, in Africa.
One of the major constraints of Africa’s economic development is the lack of management and entrepreneurial capacity across the full range of companies and organisations. AMI seeks to create a solution that is deeply embedded in the experience of the continent, using African material created by Africans for Africans, while drawing on the best insights that global practice and research can offer in the fields of learning, technology-enabled learning, and management effectiveness.
“With that in mind, this report reviews current global thinking about learning, and in particular about learning to manage. We argue that blended learning has several advantages over purely online learning, and several practical advantages over purely in-person learning,” says Jonathan Cook, Chairman of AMI.
“We draw on current thinking about best practice learning and management approaches, plus our own experience from the initial two years’ of AMI’s journey, to reflect on how to make blended learning most effective for managers and entrepreneurs in Africa. We do not attempt to repeat research already conducted by others, but rather to reflect on its significance for workplace learning and particularly management development.”
Cook provides eight conclusions that concisely summarise the report:
1. Effective managers and entrepreneurs hold the key to Africa’s prosperity.
2. The demand for training is greatest for job entrants, entrepreneurs and junior to middle managers. In South Africa alone, 480, 000 new managers will be required by 2030. But the need is often in small companies that do not have the resources to send their managers to expensive business schools. 99.6 percent of firms in Nigeria employ fewer than 10 workers and in Kenya alone it is estimated that there are 750,000 small and medium-sized companies.
3. What these managers and entrepreneurs need most are soft skills – what we call personal habits. Both AMI’s experience and our survey of Kenya’s HR professionals show that 21st century work-readiness skills and management ability are more important than technical and functional skills. Despite this, much of learning and development spend is still focused on technical and functional skills.
4. Embedding effective management practices into the routine of the company has more impact than focusing on individual competencies, according to recent research. The profound implication for learning and development practitioners is that they need to focus less on teaching knowledge to individuals and more on transforming what organisations actually do. We call these company habits. HR practitioners in Kenya cited change management as the highest priority outcome from their learning programmes.
5. To change behaviour we need learning methodologies that incorporate experience, practice, feedback and accountability, not just content and theory. This calls for approaches such as the flipped classroom, action learning and blended learning. These draw on the 70:20:10 principle that states that we learn most from experience on the job, then from interaction with peers, and least from content in lectures and texts.
6. Rapid developments in technology support these methods through virtual communities, engaging content, and data to individualise learning. They allow for company feedback, accessibility on mobile phones, and simple ways for users to create and share their own content. Users can now access learning and business toolkits when they need them, anywhere, at any time and at minimal cost.
7. The preferred solution is blended learning in which the economy, scale and convenience of online learning is managed through the intensity, practice and shared insight of face-to-face interactions. This works best in customised company programmes with peer learning and accountability processes that integrate learning and performance at work.
8. AMI data show that performance can indeed be transformed. Of those who participated in AMI blended learning programmes, 97 percent reported that they apply what they learn at work and 86 percent reported improved effectiveness. Among entrepreneurs/business owners, 85 percent reported an improvement in operating efficiency since engaging with AMI. A large majority reported that the AMI blended method was more helpful than other training providers they had experienced.
G7 Summit guide: What it is and what leaders hope to achieve
Unless you’ve had your head buried in the sand, you’ll have seen the term ‘G7’ plastered all over the Internet this week. We’re going to give you the skinny on exactly what the G7 is and what its purpose on this planet is ─ and whether it’s a good or a bad collaboration.
Who are the G7?
The Group of Seven, or ‘G7’, may sound like a collective of pirate lords from a certain Disney smash-hit, but in reality, it’s a group of the world’s seven largest “advanced” economies ─ the powerhouses of the world, if you like.
The merry band comprises:
- The United Kingdom
- The United States
Historically, Russia was a member of the then-called ‘G8’ but found itself excluded after their ever-so-slightly illegal takeover of Crimea back in 2014.
Since 1977, the European Union has also been involved in some capacity with the G7 Summit. The Union is not recognised as an official member, but gradually, as with all Europe-linked affairs, the Union has integrated itself into the conversation and is now included in all political discussions on the annual summit agenda.
When was the ‘G’ formed?
Back in 1975, when the world was reeling from its very first oil shock and the subsequent financial fallout that came with it, the heads of state and government from six of the leading industrial countries had a face-to-face meeting at the Chateau de Rambouillet to discuss the global economy, its trajectory, and what they could do to address the economic turmoil that reared its ugly head throughout the 70s.
Why does the G7 exist?
At this very first summit ─ the ‘G6’ summit ─, the leaders adopted a 15-point communiqué, the Declaration of Rambouillet, and agreed to continuously meet once a year moving forward to address the problems of the day, with a rotating Presidency. One year later, Canada was welcomed into the fold, and the ‘G6’ became seven and has remained so ever since ─ Russia’s inclusion and exclusion not counted.
The group, as previously mentioned, was born in the looming shadow of a financial crisis, but its purpose is more significant than just economics. When leaders from the group meet, they discuss and exchange ideas on a broad range of issues, including injustice around the world, geopolitical matters, security, and sustainability.
It’s worth noting that, while the G7 may be made up of mighty nations, the bloc is an informal one. So, although it is considered an important annual event, declarations made during the summit are not legally binding. That said, they are still very influential and worth taking note of because it indicates the ambitions and outlines the initiatives of these particularly prominent leading nations.
Where is the 2021 G7 summit?
This year, the summit will be held in the United Kingdom deep in the southwest of England, with Prime Minister Boris Johnson hosting his contemporaries in the quaint Cornish resort of Carbis Bay near St Ives in Cornwall.
What will be discussed this year?
After almost two years of remote communication, this will be the first in-person G7 summit since the novel Coronavirus first took hold of the globe, and Britain wants “leaders to seize the opportunity to build back better from coronavirus, uniting to make the future fairer, greener, and more prosperous.”
The three-day summit, running from Friday to Sunday, will see the seven leaders discussing a whole host of shared challenges, ranging from the pandemic and vaccine development and distribution to the ongoing global fight against climate change through the implementation of sustainable norms and values.
According to the UK government, the attendees will also be taking a look at “ensuring that people everywhere can benefit from open trade, technological change, and scientific discovery.”